Bioavailability

You may have noticed that most of what you eat does not go into the body and into the bloodstream through the intestine, but instead goes out into the toilet. The body only utilizes a fraction of what you eat. The digestive system is made up of several organs that work together to break food down into its simplest parts.

The food begins with the mouth, you chew, mixing the food with bacteria and enzymes in the saliva and once swallowed, the food goes on a trip through the oesophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, pancreas, gallbladder, and liver. In the process, the body absorbs important vitamins, carbohydrates, minerals, fats and proteins.

After swallowing food, it travels through the oesophagus. The oesophagus is about 25 centimeters long and moves food from the back of your throat down to your stomach. It takes about two to three seconds for the muscles in the oesophagus to move the food along.

Your stomach is the tub at the end of the tunnel. It is a stretchy sack shaped like the letter J, the stomach stores and breaks down the food you have eaten into a liquid mixture, which is slowly emptied into your small intestine.

The small intestine measures three to five centimeters around and 6.7 meters in length. The small intestine is packed underneath the stomach and uses the liver, pancreas and gallbladder to break your food down even further. The small intestine sucks most of the vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates and fats out of the food. It takes food more than four hours to work its way through. By the end of the journey, some nutrients have made their way to the liver and the leftovers move on to the large intestine.

The large intestine is about seven to 10 centimeters around and 1.5 meters long. This organ takes all the stuff your body cannot use and flushes it out of your body. Your body gets one last chance to absorb water, minerals and nutrients from this last bit of stuff when it passes through the large intestine, also called the colon. After the colon has absorbed all the goodness it can, the stuff hardens and is moved to the rectum, where it waits for you to go to the toilet.

Factors Relating To Bioavailability

There are many factors, both dietary and physiological, that influence nutrient bioavailability. Examples include: (1) the physical form of the nutrient within the food structure and the ease with which the nutrient can be released from that structure; (2) the chemical form of the nutrient in a foodstuff and its solubility in the lumen; (3) the presence of proteolytic enzyme inhibitors which reduce the body's ability to digest protein; and (4) the presence of enzymes such as thiaminase which partially hydrolyzes thiamin and makes it less biologically active.

Diet-related factors include:

  • Food structure
  • Physicochemical form of the nutrient
  • Enhancers of absorption, e.g., ascorbate (for iron), some organic acids, sugars, amino acids, bulk lipid (for fat-soluble vitamins), and specific fatty acids
  • Inhibitors (primarily of inorganic micronutrient absorption), e.g., phosphates (especially phytate), polyphenols (including tannins), and oxalate
  • Competition for transport proteins or absorption sites, e.g., between metals.

Physiological factors include:

  • Gastric acidity
  • Intestinal secretions
  • Gut motility
  • Luminal redox state
  • Body status (e.g., tissue levels, nutrient stores)
  • Short-term homeostatic mechanisms mediated through the mucosal absorptive cells
  • Anabolic demands (e.g., growth in infancy and childhood, pregnancy, and lactation)
  • Endocrine effects
  • Infection and stress
  • Genetic polymorphisms and inborn errors of metabolism
  • Gut microflora.

Certain food constituents have the ability to bind nutrients, thereby rendering them more or less absorbable. For nutrients that are transported into the mucosal cell by means of a carrier-mediated pathway, the degree of binding is an important determinant of bioavailability. If the chelating compound has a higher affinity for the nutrient than the specific carrier molecule, then the net effect is a reduction in bioavailability. Conversely, a weak chelator may act as an absorption promoter by holding the nutrient in a suitably soluble form ready to be taken up into the intestinal mucosal cells. Binding compounds that impair vitamin bioavailability include the protein avidin in egg white, which binds biotin, making it biologically unavailable.

Competitive inhibitors of nutrient metabolism make up another category of dietary factors affecting bioavailability. It has been suggested that minerals with similar chemical properties may compete for common binding sites or carriers. Transition metals such as iron, zinc, and copper are typical examples of competitive inhibitors. This will only take place at high levels of intake when the sum of ionic species present at the site of absorption exceed the critical threshold relating to the absorption kinetics of the minerals in question.

The bioavailability of lipid-soluble nutrients (including carotenoids, tocopherols, and other fat-soluble vitamins) is markedly influenced by their physicochemical availability for incorporation into mixed micelles during digestion. The release of lipid-soluble components is thought to occur primarily upon ingestion and initial digestion within the stomach. The factors which may influence their release are: localization within the food matrix; physical break-up of the food; chemical/enzymatic breakdown of the food during ingestion and initial digestion; and the presence of a suitable lipid phase in the form of emulsion droplets or free lipid.

The absorbability of a nutrient also depends upon certain physiological factors, such as the composition and volume of gastric and intestinal secretions. The absorption and utilization clearly depend upon a number of host-related variables. Most of these are key participants in the body's homeostatic regulatory mechanisms such as nutritional status, developmental state, gastric and intestinal secretions, mucosal cell regulation, and gut microflora.

How To Think About It

The digestive system must employ restrictive strategies to keep the bloodstream clean. Loosely speaking it is a targeted system designed to identify what it requires and as a result most of what enters the stomach will simply not be accepted into the bloodstream. This 7 tests of fire means that the many capsules in the vitamin section of the supermarket go out into the toilet and most medical pills have bioavailability issues to circumvent. Another way to look at it is the Shape-O Toy, the stages of digestion lead to a shape that must fit the shape in the ball, if the final product differs it will not enter the bloodstream.

It Can Be Measured

Bioavailability can be measured and experimented upon to improve bioavailability. Food, cooking and recipes must understand bioavailability to be nutritious. For example some vitamins are water-soluble, boiling certain foods in hot water and then throwing the hot water out and serving the food means the vitamins went out of the food into the water and into the drain and what is served is less those vitamins. The best way to eat a certain food? That is a mystery. I have not measured the best way to prepare and eat foods.

Time In Digestion

What we never hear about is time in digestion, different food spend different time in digestion and are broken down to different magnitudes. If you eat dense food that takes longer to digest, you may well be eating your second meal before your first meal has been digested and you do not want that, you want to have periods of time between meals where the digestive system is idle. Then aiding in 8 / 16 hour intermittent fasting.

This is a reason to look into easily digested foods such as plants based foods rather than meats with spinach, kale and broccoli being the stand outs and looking to eggs, milks, tofu, beans and chia seeds as sources of protein and reducing the portion of meat to a single bite size portion.

These alterations will change your digestion system and stool, such as odourless stool when compared with high meat diet.

Ways of Bioavailability

  • Orally - tablets, capsules or liquids
  • Trans-dermal - gels, patches and micro-needle patch
  • Nasal - spray
  • Inhalation - pulmonory
  • Needless inejctions - injection that uses pressure that replaces the syringe
  • Injection - hypodermic needle or IV.

Air and Water

Wihtout air, death in 15 minutes and without water 3 days. So air and water far outweighs food.

That means we have to find a way to drink water, without feeling deprived.

Energy

  • Fats
  • Sugars, carbohydrates are just another name for sugars.

Both fats and sugars are super essential. Western diet consume an average of 77 grams of sugar per meal. A 22oz coca-cola is approx 80 grams of sugar and that is before sundaes and sugar doped bread. The body cannot absorb more than 25 grams of sugar in one meal, the rest is stored and creates obesity, the body is slowly destroyed attempting to deal with large amounts of sugars being dumped into the system. It is practically impossible to eat out in English-speaking countries.

Vitamins

Vitamins are a group of substances that are needed for normal cell function, growth, and development. Vitamins are grouped into two categories: Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body's fatty tissue. The four fat-soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E, and K. These vitamins are absorbed more easily by the body in the presence of dietary fat. There are nine water-soluble vitamins. They are not stored in the body. Any leftover water-soluble vitamins leave the body through the urine. Although, the body keeps a small reserve of these vitamins, they have to be taken on a regular basis to prevent shortage in the body. Vitamin B12 is the only water-soluble vitamin that can be stored in the liver for many years.

There are 13 essential vitamins. This means that these vitamins are required for the body to work properly. They are:

  1. Vitamin A - (F)at soluable. Forms and maintains healthy teeth, bones, soft tissue, mucous membranes, and skin. Sweet Potatoes, Kale, Carrot.
  2. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) - (W)ater soluable. For body cells to change carbohydrates into energy. Getting enough carbohydrates is very important during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Also essential for heart function and healthy nerve cells. Navy Beans, Peas.
  3. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) - (W) Important for body growth and the production of red blood cells. Spinach, Kidney Beans, Almonds, Avocados.
  4. Vitamin B3 (niacin) - (W) Maintains healthy skin and nerves. Broccoli, Peas, Avocados.
  5. Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) - (W) Essential for the metabolism of food. Also plays a role in the production of hormones and cholesterol. Beans, Avocados, Lentils
  6. Vitamin B6 - (pyridoxine). (W) Form red blood cells and maintain brain function. Also plays an important role in the proteins that are part of many chemical reactions in the body. The more protein you eat the more pyridoxine your body requires. Soya Beans, Kale, Avocados.
  7. Vitamin B7 (biotin) - (W) Essential for the metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates, and in the production of hormones and cholesterol. Sweet Potato.
  8. Vitamin B9 (folate or ffolic acid) - (W) Works with vitamin B12 to form red blood cells. Needed for the production of DNA, which controls tissue growth and cell function. Any woman who is pregnant should be sure to get enough folate. Low levels of folate are linked to birth defects such as spina bifida. Lentils, beans, spinach, brocolli.
  9. Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) - (W) Important for metabolism. Also forms red blood cells and maintain the central nervous system. Kefir, fermented diary, supplement.
  10. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) - (W) An antioxidant that promotes healthy teeth and gums. Helps the body absorb iron and maintain healthy tissue. Also essential for wound healing. Strawberries, kiwi fruit, brocolli, tomato.
  11. Vitamin D - (F) The "sunshine vitamin," since it is made by the body after being in the sun. 10 to 15 minutes of sunshine 3 times a week is enough to produce the body's requirement of vitamin D for most people at most latitudes. People who do not live in sunny places may not make enough vitamin D. Difficult to get enough vitamin D from food sources alone. Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium. You need calcium for the normal development and maintenance of healthy teeth and bones. It also helps maintain proper blood levels of calcium and phosphorus. Sunshine or supplement.
  12. Vitamin E - (F) An antioxidant also known as tocopherol. Helps the body form red blood cells and use vitamin K. Almonds, avocados, spinach.
  13. Vitamin K - (F) Necessary for blood clotting and plays a role in bone health. There are two forms;
    1. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) - Without it, blood would not stick together (coagulate). Some studies suggest importance for bone health. Broccoli, kale, pickled cucumber.
    2. Vitamin K2 (menaquinones) - Bacteria in the digestive system make Vitamin K2. Some fermented foods such as Natto, sauerkraut.

Vitamin Like Factors

There are a number of organic compounds that, although related to the vitamins in activity, cannot be defined as true vitamins; normally they can be synthesized by humans in adequate amounts and therefore are not required in the diet.

  • Vitamin B10 - para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA or PABA), Not a vitamin nor an essential nutrient. Skin conditions and premature greying of hair. A chemical component of the folate molecule produced by plants and bacteria, and found in many foods. It is best known as a UV-blocking sunscreen applied to the skin, and is sometimes taken orally for certain medical conditions.
  • Vitamin B4 - can refer to the distinct chemicals choline, adenine, or carnitine. Choline aid in normal functioning of the brain and nervous system. Lack of choline can cause swelling in liver. Kidney Beans. Carnitine helps the body to change fatty acids into energy. Vitamin B20 - L-carnitine, Vitamin Bf - carnitine, Vitamin BT - carnitine.
  • Vitamin B8 - adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as adenylic acid. Vitamin B8 may also refer to inositol.
  • Vitamin B11 - pteroylheptaglutamic acid (PHGA; chick growth factor). Vitamin Bc-conjugate was also found to be identical to PHGA. Derivative of folate ("pteroylmonoglutamic acid" in this nomenclature).
  • Vitamin B13 - orotic acid.
  • Vitamin B14 - cell proliferant, anti-anemia, rat growth factor, and antitumor pterin phosphate, named by Earl R. Norris. Isolated from human urine at 0.33ppm (later in blood), but later abandoned by him as further evidence did not confirm this. He also claimed this was not xanthopterin.
  • Vitamin B15 - pangamic acid, also known as pangamate. Promoted in various forms as a dietary supplement and drug; considered unsafe and subject to seizure by the US Food and Drug Administration.
  • Vitamin B16 - dimethylglycine (DMG) is synthesized by the human body from choline.
  • Vitamin B17 - pseudoscientific name for the poisonous compound amygdalin, also known as the equally pseudoscientific name "nitrilosides" despite the fact that it is a single compound. Amygdalin can be found in various plants, but is most commonly extracted from apricot pits and other similar fruit kernels. Amygdalin is hydrolyzed by various intestinal enzymes to form, among other things, hydrogen cyanide, which is toxic to human beings when exposed to a high enough dosage. Some proponents claim that amygdalin is effective in cancer treatment and prevention, despite its toxicity and a severe lack of scientific evidence.
  • Vitamin Bm: myo-inositol, also called "mouse antialopaecia factor".[48]
  • Vitamin Bp: "antiperosis factor", which prevents perosis, a leg disorder, in chicks; can be replaced by choline and manganese salts.
  • Vitamin Bv: a type of B6 other than pyridoxine.
  • Vitamin BW: a type of biotin other than d-biotin.
  • Vitamin Bx: an alternative name for both pABA (see vitamin B10) and pantothenic acid.[37][42]
  • Lipoic acid
  • Bioflavinoids

Minerals

About 20 mineral have so far been identified as essential to human life.

Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium and chloride are required in amounts of more than 100mg a day.

The rest are known as trace minerals or 'elements', though some - iron, zinc, selenium, chromium, manganese, iodine and copper - are deemed more important than others.

  • Calcium - White Beans, Kale.
  • Phosphorus - Beans
  • Magnesium - Legumes, Kale.
  • Potassium - Sweet potatoe, Kale.
  • Sodium - Table salt
  • Chloride - Beans
  • Iron - Spinach
  • Zinc - Legumes
  • Selenium - Broccoli
  • Chromium - Broccoli
  • Manganese - Spinach, Kale.
  • Iodine - Seaweed
  • Copper - Sweet Potatoes, Kale.
  • Molybdenum - Legumes
  • Silicon - Leafy green vegetables
  • Boron - Broccoli

Amino Acids

The 20 to 22 amino acids that comprise proteins include:

  • Alanine - Soybeans
  • Arginine - Soybeans
  • Asparagine - Legumes
  • Aspartic Acid - Chia seeds
  • Cysteine - Sunflower seeds
  • Glutamic acid - Wheat
  • Glutamine - Beans
  • Glycine - Legumes
  • Histidine - Whole grains
  • Isoleucine - Lentils
  • Leucine - Beans
  • Lysine - Soybeans
  • Methionine - Beans
  • Phenylalanine - Soybeans
  • Proline - Lentils
  • Serine - Soybeans
  • Threonine - Lentils
  • Tryptophan - Pumpkin and seasame seeds, peanuts
  • Tyrosine - Soybeans
  • Valine - Tofu
  • Selenocysteine - Wheat
  • Pyrrolysine (not used in human protein synthesis)

Of these 20 amino acids, nine amino acids are essential:

  • Phenylalanine
  • Valine
  • Tryptophan
  • Threonine
  • Isoleucine
  • Methionine
  • Histidine
  • Leucine
  • Lysine

The non-essential, also known as dispensable amino acids, can be excluded from a diet, and the human body is capable of synthesizing these amino acids using only the essential amino acids. For most physiological states in a healthy adult, the above nine amino acids are the only essential amino acids. However, amino acids like arginine and histidine may be considered conditionally essential because the body cannot synthesize them in sufficient quantities during certain physiological periods of growth, including pregnancy, adolescent growth, or recovery from trauma.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557845/- Biochemistry, Essential Amino Acids

  

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