Embryonic Resynthesis, Human Regeneration

Immortal animals have already cured aging. Immortal animals use stem cells to repair damage indefinitely, so damaged cells are cleared out and replaced with new ones. The organism is maintained, nothing essential breaks and the organism keeps on living. With aging, regeneration is switched off and the organism declines until something essential breaks. Humans have wound healing, which is a diminished version of regeneration. Elucidate and adapt the same technique, one to one to other organisms and ultimately as therapy to humans. It is not simply a matter of injecting stem cells.

While human regeneration is generally thought of as limb regeneration and research uses limb regeneration, we are interested with cell turnover regeneration and regeneration in wound healing, not just superficial wounds but the micro-damage that is not felt by the person such as damage to the extracellular matrix by ultraviolet rays, muscle and bone remodeling when lifting weights in the gymnasium, or perhaps damage to stomach lining or blood vessels during a meal. Unlike limb regeneration, we define "human" regeneration, generally as embryonic resynthesis. The physical process of you giving rise to you again (self renewal), rather than giving rise to offspring. As it is often stated the every 7 years the body replaces itself, resynthesis occurs, but the therapy is to make the resynthesis source embryonic components.

This includes, tissue maintenance in model organisms such as the planarian, salamander, immortal jellyfish, zebrafish and several others. It includes an event in which the oocyte undergoes an age-reversal process. It includes anecdotal observation where a fetus has a stroke and fully repairs themselves, and it also may include the zygote growing into a fetus, where if a fetal limb were amputated during this period it would regenerate similar to the salamander.

These examples of regeneration have to be adapted to humans and made into a therapy.

If the tissue does not grow younger with cell turnover, aging continues, the decline in tissue maintenance with aging is possibly the primary cause of aging and mortality.

According to Alexei Terman, of Linkoping University in Sweden, "Clearly, if all damaged structures were renewed with perfect accuracy, aging would not occur. But the inevitability of aging suggests that the biological mechanisms of removal and re-synthesis are not perfect. Of these two processes, the one most suspect in the progression of aging is that of inefficient removal."

We sway towards imperfect re-synthesis as the cause of aging because the breakdown of the extracellular matrix by ultraviolet rays, photoaging resulting in wrinkles is not caused by inefficient removal, instead caused by imperfect re-synthesis. This aging associated inhibition of re-synthesis has system-wide deleterious consequence. Planaria shows and even proves that perfect re-synthesis cures aging.

We cannot cure dementia, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's until we can activate neurogenesis in situ, obviously.

  • Stem cells are the core of the repair system. Stem cells must be young and kept young. They must be abundant, the more abundant theoretically the more maintenance, the less abundant results in maintenance foregone. There is not enough stem cells in the human body to fully participate in the extensive tissue regeneration, and scars or fibrosis is the fallback. With enough stem cells scars do not form.
  • Chemical signalling, there is a complex chemical signalling process that orchestrates tissue maintenance. Growth factors, micro-environment. Telomerase and maintenance of telomeres.
  • Electrical signalling, there is also an electrical signalling process that orchestrates tissue maintenance. See Dr. Robert O. Becker and Dr. Michael Levin
  • Mechanical load, nerve health.

There are parts of the human body that are essential for curing aging that are not stem cell based, including resynthesis of the extracellular matrix ECM.

Stem cells are used to replace damaged cells, they can become any cell in the body. Some damaged cells are replaced by adjacent cells, fissioning, mitosis.

Stem cells are made from and in the bone marrow. They live in niches on the bone, waiting for specific chemical signals that release them into the bloodstream. Certain cells in the wound make signals that call the stem cells to its location. The stem cells home in on the signals where they differentiate into the specific cell type using either chemical or electrical signalling to become new tissue. So it appears, the age of the stem cell can be used to reverse the age of the organism or with enough damage and stem cells, an organ can be rebuilt in situ. With age the stem cell self-renewal does not occur, similar to restricted mitosis, it is often said that stem cell dyshomeostasis is due to DNA damage, cell size.

Changes in the bone marrow with age affect stem cell production, and the amount of circulating stem cells in the bloodstream decreases with age.

Very Small Embryonic Like Stem Cells, VSELS are possibly the most potent type of stem cell in the human body. Mirror adaption of model organisms could be in utilizing VSELS. They roam around the bloodstream, quiescent, and can be activated by light of a specific wavelength. We may be able to use full embryonic stem cells, and we are not going to follow any religious, ethical or moral issues with their use, however we shall source ethically with industry standards, for example we do not use any animal based media and that is something we implemented on our own ethics. We may be able to use them safely without them leading to cancer. The use of mesenchymal stem cells is with the prospect and design that they do become part of tissue. Even beginning to experiment on Chimera flatworm components to see if the effect can be replicated in other organisms, including human beings.

Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells (VSELs)

There is no data that VSELs are even real.

Young stem cells are much better at repairing than old stem cells. So UCSC might be the best.

If repair ability is lost, scar tissue increases, organ function declines, disease and death results and stem cell exhaustion is central to this dogma.

Unlike somatic cells, stem cells activate telomerase.

The major role of inflammation is to increase blood flow into the wound. Stem cells modulate the inflammation.

Some molecules released by wounds that call stem cells are...

  1. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor GCSF
  2. IL8
  3. Stem cell factor
  4. Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1 stem cell adhesion protein that is deactivated by GCSF in the niche causing stem cell release subsequnetly the would produces SDF-1 to cause adhesion at the wound site)

Certain Growth Factors That Are Implicated In Cancer Are Essential For Regeneration

Proliferation is essential for regeneration, while proliferation is also a feature of cancer, anti-proliferation is an anti-cancer strategy. Proliferation is essential for tissue maintenance, cells must first disassociate from the electric field of the body to become cancer cells, as a possible technique to ensure safe regeneration. Some of the factors listed here are not regeneration factors but are cancer promoting factors. Define the correct micro-environment is essential for regeneration.

  1. IGF-1
  2. VEGF
  3. TNF
  4. TGF
  5. TGF-alpha
  6. TGF-Beta
  7. EGF
  8. FGF
  9. IL1/IL6/IL8/Il11 - pro inflammatory factors that may not be related to regeneration.
  10. beta-FGF
  11. TNF-alpha
  12. VEGF-C
  13. ET-1
  14. PDGF
  15. TF
  16. Integrins
  17. HIF
  18. HGF/SF
  19. Angiopoietin 2

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