Essential Vitamins and Minerals


  • Calcium
  • Chloride
  • Chromium
  • Copper
  • Iodine
  • Iron
  • Magnesium
  • Manganese
  • Molybdenum
  • Phosphorus
  • Potassium
  • Selenium
  • Sodium
  • Sulfur
  • Zinc

Disputed and Revised

  • Boron, may help improve bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Essential status is controversial, but it is thought to be essential for pregnant women and infants.
  • Calcium
  • Chloride
  • Chromium
  • Cobalt, not considered an essential mineral for humans. Humans can synthesize it from vitamin B12.
  • Copper
  • Fluoride, politically motivated not essential, there is no such thing as fluoride deficiency. Bones comprises calcium 30%, phosphorus 18%, water 25%, 25% macronutrients such as fat and proteins. Magnesium, potassium and sulfur are essential for bone health. To make bones strong or healthy, feed them what they are comprised of and exercise them. Tooth enamel is made of 96% minerals, mostly hydroxyapatite, a crystalline calcium phosphate. The other 4% is made up of water and organic matter. Mineral toothpastes have been shown to contribute to building and rebuilding tooth enamel. Hydroxyapatite is not a cleaning agent, water is.
  • Iodine
  • Iron
  • Magnesium
  • Manganese
  • Molybdenum
  • Nickel, may help the body metabolize amino acids. Essential status is controversial, but it is thought to be essential for people with certain metabolic disorders.
  • Phosphorus
  • Potassium
  • Selenium
  • Silicon, my help improve bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Essential status is controversial, but it is thought to be essential for people with osteoporosis.
  • Sodium
  • Sulfur
  • Vanadium, the evidence for vanadium's essentiality is still inconclusive. Some studies have shown that vanadium can have beneficial effects on health, such as lowering blood sugar levels and improving insulin sensitivity. However, other studies have not found these benefits. Additionally, vanadium can be toxic in high doses. WHO's Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for vanadium is 10 micrograms (mcg) per day for adults.
  • Zinc

Sea Moss

Sea moss is a type of seaweed that is rich in minerals. It is said to contain 92 of the 102 minerals that the human body needs. However, there is no scientific evidence to support this claim.

A study published in the journal "Food Science and Nutrition" in 2019 analyzed the mineral content of sea moss and found that it contains 21 minerals, including:

  • Calcium: Important for strong bones and teeth, blood clotting, and muscle contraction.
  • Chromium: Important for blood sugar regulation.
  • Copper: Important for red blood cell production and immune function.
  • Iodine: Important for thyroid function.
  • Iron: Important for red blood cell production.
  • Magnesium: Important for heart rhythm, blood pressure, and muscle and nerve function.
  • Manganese: Important for energy metabolism and bone health.
  • Phosphorus: Important for bone health and energy metabolism.
  • Potassium: Important for regulating blood pressure and fluid balance in the body.
  • Selenium: Important for antioxidant defense and thyroid function.
  • Zinc: Important for wound healing, immune function, and reproduction.

The concentration of minerals in sea moss varies depending on the species of sea moss, the growing conditions, and the processing method.

Getting all 15 minerals

  1. Oats and dark leafy greens
  2. Nuts and seeds and beans
  3. Whole grains and kefir


  • A
  • B1, thiamine
  • B2, riboflavin
  • B3, niacin
  • B5, pantothenic acid
  • B6, pyridoxine
  • B7, biotin
  • B9, folate
  • B12, cobalamin
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • K, K1 aka phylloquinone and K2 aka menaquinone.

Non-essential Vitamins & Substances no longer regarded as vitamins

  • Choline (previously known as B4)
  • Inositol (previously known as B8)
  • B10, PABA
  • B11, aka folic acid is as synthetic form of folate (B9), folic acid is more easily absorbed by the body than folate from food
  • B13, orotic acid
  • B14, adenin
  • B15, pangamic acid
  • B16, dimethylglycine (DMG)
  • B17, amygdalin
  • B20, L-carnitine
  • Bf, carnitine.
  • Bm: myo-inositol, also called "mouse antialopaecia factor"
  • Bp: "antiperosis factor"
  • BT: carnitine
  • Bv: a type of B6 other than pyridoxine.
  • BW: a type of biotin other than d-biotin.
  • Bx: an alternative name for both pABA (see vitamin B10) and pantothenic acid.
  • Lutein and zeaxanthin
  • Carnosine
  • Taurine
  • PQQ

Essential Fatty Acids

4:1 ratio, 4 parts omega 6 to 1 part omega 3. Only marine algae, specifically microalgae contains vegan sources of EPA and DHA omega 3 fatty acids. ALA can be found in walnuts and chia seeds, flaxseeds...

  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids:
    • Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA): EPA is found in fatty fish like salmon, mackerel, and sardines. It is known for its anti-inflammatory properties and its role in supporting cardiovascular health.
    • Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA): DHA is also present in fatty fish and is particularly important for brain health and cognitive function. It's a major component of brain tissue.
  • Omega-6 Fatty Acids:
    • Linoleic Acid (LA): LA is commonly found in vegetable oils such as sunflower, safflower, and corn oil. It serves as a precursor for other omega-6 fatty acids.
    • Arachidonic Acid (AA): AA is derived from linoleic acid and is involved in inflammation and immune responses.

Herbal Medicine and Phytonutrients

There are molecules in food, plants, vegetables and fruits that have health benefits. Traditionally this has been called herbal medicine, science now calls them phytochemicals or phytonutrients. Herbal medicine regards the plant, vegetable, while science is only seeking molecules as part of a business model. Garlic is a well known superfood, while allicin is regarded as a phytochemical. This is called food as medicine. Allicin has major health benefits but is not a mineral, vitamin or macronutrient. An enzyme called alliinase is activated when the garlic clove is chopped or crushed. This enzyme converts alliin into allicin. Statins, lovastatin (Mevacor) active ingredient monacolin K was stolen from red yeast rice.

There are thousands of phytonutrients. Refer to an encyclopaedia of herbal medicine... This is not "I have this, I do this". These nutrients are added to daily meals as a natural part of the diet or prevention.

This generally occurs only after becoming a competant vegan.

Amino Acids

9 essential amino acids and 11 nin-essential amino acids.

Essential Amino Acids

  • Histidine
  • Isoleucine
  • Leucine
  • Lysine
  • Methionine
  • Phenylalanine
  • Threonine
  • Tryptophan
  • Valine

Non-essential Amino Acids

  • Alanine
  • Arginine
  • Asparagine
  • Aspartic acid
  • Cysteine
  • Glutamic acid (Glutamate)
  • Glutamine
  • Glycine
  • Proline
  • Serine
  • Tyrosine

Conditionally essential amino acids

  • Arginine: plays a role in immune function, wound healing, and blood vessel function. During times of stress or illness, the body's demand for arginine may increase.
  • Cysteine: important for the production of antioxidants like glutathione and for protein structure. It can become conditionally essential during certain disease states or oxidative stress.
  • Glutamine: essential for immune function, gut health, and other metabolic processes. It can be in high demand during times of physical stress, infection, or critical illness.
  • Tyrosine: precursor for several important neurotransmitters and hormones. In situations of stress or certain medical conditions, the body's production of tyrosine may not be sufficient.
  • Ornithine: involved in the urea cycle, which helps the body eliminate ammonia. It can become conditionally essential in situations of excessive ammonia production, such as liver disease. Ornithine is often considered a part of the "arginine family" of amino acids because it is involved in the urea cycle along with arginine and citrulline. It is produced from arginine and then converted into citrulline in the urea cycle.
  • Proline: important for collagen synthesis and wound healing. During times of rapid growth, tissue repair, or injury, the body's demand for proline may increase.
  • Serine: involved in various metabolic processes and protein synthesis. In situations of increased demand, such as during rapid growth or recovery from injury, serine can become conditionally essential.


Impact on blood sugar levels.


Saturated are considered unhealthy, Unsaturated are considered healthy. This plays an insignificant role in a plant based diet.


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