Imperfect Turnover as the Cause of Aging

1) Wrinkles are caused by the loss of collagen and elastin. When these proteins break down, the skin loses its elasticity and becomes wrinkled. UV rays from the sun is proven to result in wrinkles. When UV rays penetrate the skin, it damages the collagen and elastin, and damages cells. The damaged cells produce free radicals that damage other cells.

    • Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun penetrates the skin.
    • UV radiation damages the DNA of skin cells, collagen and elastin.
    • The damaged cells produce free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can damage other cells.
    • The damaged cells and free radicals also break down collagen and elastin, which are proteins that give skin its strength and elasticity.
    • The repair is not perfect increasingly with age.
    • The half-baked repair shows up as loose skin and wrinkles.

UV comes in UVA (penetrate deep into the dermis, where they damage cells, collagen fibers and elastin fibers), UVB (sunburn) and UVC.

The damage activates a repair response, cells attempt to repair damage to themselves and inflammation calls macrophages (a part of the immune system) to the area to engulf damaged components, cells. Enzymes called matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are produced by cells that break down elastin and collagen so that the macrophages can engulf the damaged collagen and elastin. MMPs are produced by cells in the skin, including fibroblasts.

Fibroblasts are cells that produce collagen and elastin, fibroblasts are activated and start to produce more collagen and elastin. Nearby skin cells undergo mitosis and replace missing cells engulfed by the macrophages or new skin cells are produced by stem cells in the dermis.

The repair is similar to general wound repair response.

With aging the immune system loses homeostasis and the signalling system loses homeostasis, the number of stem cells and fibroblasts in the skin decreases, and the stem cells and fibroblasts that remain become less active. This leads to a decrease in the production of collagen and elastin, which contributes to the formation of wrinkles and other signs of aging.

2) Gray Hair, the hair follicle cycle signalling system, collapses at a certain age and the result is gray hair. Read more Want to reverse aging? Try reversing graying, first, the reason why gray hair or wrinkles have not been solved is that it is too hard, the signalling system is perhaps up to a hundred hormones/chemicals and returning homeostasis to the signalling system is too hard. This is a statement of fact. Wrinkles and graying are highly visible and indisputable, that is why no one wants to touch it.

3) Osteoporosis affacts the skeletal system, decreased bone density and increased susceptibility to fractures. Osteoclasts and osteoblasts maintain the skeletal system using a communication or signalling system, at a certain age the signalling system collapses and the osteoclasts become more dominant than osteoblasts leading to over reabsorption and weak bones known as Osteoporosis. The disease impacts woman more than men during menopause as estrogen is required for the balance in bone re-synthesis, when the sex hormones are switched off in the brain, it throws the communication system out and the disease is more likely. Calcium homeostasis in blood is a reason for bone to be cannibalized, so calcium can be released from bone into the blood or sequested, where excess calcium in taken out of the blood and stored in the bones. Mechanical pressure also activate bone reformation and bone is turning over as a precaution as bones have a used by date and need to be remade every so often.

Bones comprise...

  1. Organic components: Approximately 35% of the bone's composition consists of organic components. These include cells, collagen fibers, and various proteins that provide flexibility and strength to the bone.
  1. Inorganic components: Around 65% of the bone's composition is made up of inorganic components. These mainly consist of hydroxyapatite crystals, which are composed of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. These minerals give the bone its hardness and strength.

4) Sarcopenia, loss of muscle mass, and inability to build muscle similar to osteoporosis. Muscles are cannibalized with macrophages and rebuilt with myoblasts. Again, it is the androgenic response that builds muscle and the catabolic response that breaks muscle down. As hormones are turned off with age, the signalling system falls out of balance and sarcopenia results. It becomes suspect that myoblast production is tied to a system that is also not performing adequately. The new cells in the human body must come from the bone marrow, into the stem cells and into new myoblasts. Myoblasts become myocytes (muscle cells), they can also come from mitosis of neighboring cells. A singalling system is essential for both process.

5) Presbyopia: Age-related loss of the ability to focus on nearby objects, resulting in difficulty reading or seeing close-up.

6) Cognitive decline: Gradual reduction in cognitive abilities, including memory, attention, and problem-solving skills.

7) Arthritis: Inflammation and degeneration of the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility.

8) Cardiovascular diseases: Various age-related conditions affecting the heart and blood vessels, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and heart failure.

9) Macular degeneration: Progressive deterioration of the central portion of the retina, leading to loss of vision.

10) Hearing loss: Age-related decline in hearing ability, often affecting high-frequency sounds.

11) Frailty: A state of increased vulnerability to stressors due to age-related declines in physiological reserves and functional capacity.

12) Impaired immune function: The immune system becomes less efficient with age, leading to increased susceptibility to infections and a diminished response to vaccinations.

13) Immune senescence

14) Presbyopia and Cognitive decline, brain function

15) Arthritis

16) Cardiovascular diseases

17) Macular degeneration

18) Hearing loss

19) Age spots

20) Thinning of hair

21) Reduced sexual drive

22) Reduced metabolism

23) Reduce organ performance

24) Increased mortality and mobidity

25) Thymus involution


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